Smoke in womb linked to obesity

Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy are more likely to be overweight than those who did not, according to researchers.


A study by Aberdeen University compared the Body Mass Index (BMI) of siblings at five-years-old whose mothers smoked in-between pregnancies.

It found those exposed to smoke in the womb had a higher BMI than the older sibling who had not.

Dr Steve Turner, who led the research, said: “This study looked at the relationship between maternal smoking and childhood obesity.

“Previous studies have identified a link between the two but saying that one causes the other is problematic because there are lots of other factors that might explain this relationship, for example people from a poor communities are known to smoke more than those in more affluent communities.

“Also, children in those communities tend to be more obese so it may be that the relationship between smoking and obesity is actually explained by socioeconomic status.”

The relationship between pregnant mothers who smoke and childhood obesity has been identified in previous studies, but on this occasion it compared the effect of maternal smoking on siblings.

The results, published in the journal Paediatric and Paediatric Epidemiology, found if the mother started smoking between pregnancies, the younger child had increased BMI compared to their older unexposed brother or sister.

“This study adds to the huge body of evidence that maternal smoking in pregnancy is harmful and the harm isn’t just limited to the pregnancy itself – it lasts well-beyond the pregnancy,” Dr Turner said.

Castagna backs form for Tigers’ AFL GF

Jason Castagna is hopeful he’s done enough to hold his place in Richmond’s AFL grand final team.


The second-year forward hit a lean patch of form just at the wrong stage of the Tigers’ premiership campaign.

He failed to kick a goal in the last four games of the home-and-away season and averaged six possessions a match over that period.

He was quiet again in the qualifying final win over Geelong, even though he kicked a goal, then had 18 touches and booted a major in the stunning preliminary final win over Greater Western Sydney.

Castagna’s defensive pressure-based role isn’t all about possessions and goals, but he admits his tapering form had started to play on his mind.

“I was pretty worried about my spot at times, but Dimma (Damien Hardwick) has been really good in keeping the faith in me,” Castagna told AAP.

“When you’re in a bit of a form slump as I have been recently you can get pretty down.

“We’ve all had times during the year when we’ve had a bit of a form slump but we just base our game around that pressure and if we keep bringing that it’s something we can work back from.”

Hardwick has made just one change to his line-up this finals series, bringing in a fit-again Josh Caddy for the qualifying final at the expense of Oleg Markov.

The coach hasn’t ruled out tinkering with his team this week, but also said he is more likely to stick with the winning preliminary final combination.

Castagna is confident his improved showing against the Cats is a sign of things to come.

“Some weeks I might not touch the ball as much or kick as many goals … from the outside people can say that you aren’t playing your role or you aren’t going that well,” he said.

“But inside we really focus on the pressure that helps our teammates.

“We’re not always going to get those touches, but we share it around and it evens out over the season.”

Unions go to court over penalty rate cuts

Unions representing hospitality and retail workers are about to challenge the Fair Work Commission’s decision to cut Sunday penalty rates during a Federal Court hearing.


In June the Fair Work Commission decided Sunday rates would drop by five percentage points for workers in the fast food, hospitality, retail and pharmacy sectors, starting July 1.

Hospitality union United Voice launched Federal Court action to keep workers’ penalty rates the same for Sundays and public holidays.

The Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees’ Association (SDA) also launched a Federal Court case.

In July, Justice Mordecai Bromberg decided both cases would be heard together.

The parties are due to appear before a full bench of the Federal Court in Melbourne on Tuesday for the start of a three-day hearing.

Employer and business groups including the Australian Industry Group, the Australian Hotels Association, and the NSW Business Chamber will argue the cuts should be respected.

Under the Fair Work Commission’s decision, the first cut to penalty rates will be five percentage points, with more significant cuts in 2018 and 2019 for fast food and hospitality workers.

Retail and pharmacy workers will have cuts to their rates phased in through until 2020.

United Voice says the cuts will hit lowest paid workers the most.

The ACTU has backed United Voice’s case, with president Ged Kearney arguing that if the law did not protect lowest paid workers, then the law was broken.


Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees’ Association (SDA)

Australian Business Industrial

NSW Business Chamber

Restaurant & Catering Industrial

Australian Retailers Association

National Retail Association

Master Grocers Australia

Pharmacy Guild of Australia

Fair Work Commission

Accommodation Association of Australia

Restaurant & Catering Industrial

Australian Business Industrial

United Voice

Australian Hotels Association.

Martin just another Tiger to tame: Crows

The Adelaide Crows intend to treat Brownlow medallist Dustin Martin as just another Richmond jumper in Saturday’s AFL grand final.


The Crows say they’ll have plans for medallist Martin – but won’t ignore the other Tiger threats in Saturday’s premiership decider.

Adelaide ruckman Sam Jacobs says his midfielders have been asked a similar question throughout the finals: how do they stop their star on-ball opponents?

“Every week we have copped it, whether it’s (Geelong’s Patrick) Dangerfield or (Joel) Selwood or someone like that,” Jacobs said.

“Every team has got some really good players and Richmond are no different.

“Dusty is obviously the head act at the moment.

“Respectfully, they they have got a lot of fantastic players and they’re good players in their own right.”

Adelaide deployed robust 30-gamer Riley Knight on Cat captain Joel Selwood in their preliminary final win, with the 22-year-old a candidate for Martin if the Crows opt for a hard tag.

But Jacobs said it would take a total team effort to dim the influence of the Richmond star.

“He’s like every other player, you just pressure him and make him make a decision,” he said.

“We obviously see that he’s really strong and breaks a lot of tackles and we have got to make sure we’re on top of that.

“But they have got a lot of good players and we will focus on all of them.

“It’s no different to any other midfielder they have got, Cotchin and these types have been fantastic.

“Last week it was Selwood and Danger. We will back our guys in to get the job done. We have got a lot of good midfielders in really strong form.”

Nerve stimulation helps vegetative man

A 35-year-old man who has been in a vegetative state for 15 years is showing signs of consciousness after receiving a pioneering treatment based on nerve stimulation.


In the month since a vagus nerve stimulator was put into his chest, the man, who was injured in a car accident, has begun responding to simple orders that had been impossible before.

The findings reported in Current Biology may help to show that by stimulating the vagus nerve “it is possible to improve a patient’s presence in the world”, according to lead researcher Angela Sirigu of Institut des Sciences Cognitives Marc Jeannerod in Lyon, France.

The researchers say it may challenge the view that a vegetative state which lasts for more than 12 months is irreversible.

“Other scientists have hailed it as “a potentially very exciting finding” but have also urged caution.

After treatment, it was reported the patient could follow an object with his eyes, turn his head on request and his mother said there was an improved ability to stay awake when listening to his therapist reading a book.

The vagus nerve connects the brain to many other parts of the body, including the gut.

It is known to be important in waking, alertness, and many other essential functions.

The patient, who was picked because he had been lying in a vegetative state for more than a decade with no sign of improvement, also appeared to react to a “threat”.

Researchers spotted that he reacted with surprise by opening his eyes wide when the examiner’s head suddenly approached his face.

Changes in brain activity may show that he had shifted from being in a vegetative state to being a state of minimal consciousness.

The researchers are now planning a large collaborative study.

Dr Tom Manly of Cambridge University’s MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, described it as a “potentially very exciting finding”.

“It is very important to take into account that the patient moved from a vegetative to a minimally conscious state. That is, consciousness remains severely altered but, in contrast to the vegetative state, there is minimal but definite behavioural evidence of self or environmental awareness,” he said.

“In my view it would be fair to say that this treatment could potentially restore consciousness in some patients in a vegetative state, rather than that it can.”

Weiner sentenced in teen ‘sexting’ case

Former US Representative Anthony Weiner has been sentenced to 21 months in prison for sending sexually explicit messages to a 15-year-old girl, setting off a scandal that played a role in the 2016 US presidential election.


Weiner, 53, started to cry as the sentence was announced by US District Judge Denise Cote in Manhattan. His wife Huma Abedin, an aide to Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, was not in the courtroom and has filed for divorce.

He pleaded guilty in May to transferring obscene material to a minor, and agreed he would not appeal any sentence of 27 months or less.

“I was a very sick man for a very long time, but I’m also responsible for the damage I have done,” Weiner read from a statement in court before he was sentenced. He said he was being treated, and asked Cote to spare him prison and sentence him to probation so he could continue treatment.

Weiner’s lawyer, Arlo Devlin-Brown, said that while Weiner exchanged sexually explicit messages with many women, all of the others were adults.

Cote said she believed Weiner was suffering from an addiction, and was serious about being treated. However, she said it was important to deter others from committing similar crimes.

The investigation into Weiner’s exchanges with a North Carolina high school student roiled the 2016 US presidential campaign in its final days, when authorities found emails on Weiner’s laptop from his wife.

The discovery of the emails prompted James Comey, then director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to announce in late October that the agency was reopening its investigation into Clinton’s use of a private email server while she was US secretary of state.

Clinton has said the announcement contributed to her upset loss to Republican Donald Trump, who had accused her of endangering national security by using the private server.

Record loss won’t define Springboks: coach

Springboks coach Allister Coetzee insists he won’t punish his players for one bad performance against the All Blacks and said the record loss will not define the team.


The South African side is under siege following their 57-0 defeat to New Zealand in Albany, the worst in the country’s 126-year Test history.

But a defiant Coetzee said the Springboks won’t “hang themselves” based on what happened against the world champions.

“I want to say it up front that the Albany game doesn’t define this team,” Coetzee told reporters.

“It was one game where we were definitely poor… I’ll never sweep that under the carpet.

“The players already know it was sub-standard but again, we won five out of seven matches and in those wins, we were outstanding.

“The All Blacks showed why they were the number one team in the world. On the night they were unbelievable and it worked out for them.

“We needed the perfect storm and the ball bounced perfectly for them on the night.”

A fierce response is expected from the Springboks in Sunday morning’s (AEST) Rugby Championship clash against the Wallabies in Bloemfontein.

Coetzee is unlikely to make wholesale changes when he names his team on Thursday, despite several of his players copping heavy criticism.

Winger Raymond Rhule has borne the brunt of it after missing nine tackles against the All Blacks – but Coetzee indicated he is likely to retain his position and pointed to his performance in the 23-23 draw against the Wallabies in Perth as proof of what he is capable of.

“Don’t forget how good Raymond was against Australia,” he said.

“I’m not a coach who will look at one poor performance and chuck someone away. He was outstanding against the Wallabies.

“He was the first guy to text me and say ‘I watched the game again and I could have been better here or there’.

“In the seven tests Raymond has played, he has gained a lot of experience, so now do I just throw him out and start all over again with a new player?”

Nufarm expects more growth as profit lifts

Agricultural chemicals supplier Nufarm expects further growth in the current financial year after boosting its annual profit in fiscal 2017 despite a challenging year for the industry.


Nufarm’s full-year profit for the 12 months to July 31 soared to $114.5 million, compared to last year’s $27.5 million profit which was heavily impacted by restructuring costs.

Underlying net profit, which excludes one-off items, rose 25 per cent to $135.8 million.

Chief executive Greg Hunt says Nufarm is on track to achieve at least $116 million in net benefits from efficiency programs in fiscal 2018.

“Nufarm expects to achieve further growth in the current financial year and is continuing to assess opportunities that might arise from broader industry consolidation moves,” the company said in a statement on Tuesday.

In fiscal 2017, Nufarm lifted sales in Australia, North America and Asia, which helped offset Europe’s slight decline.

Sales in South America were ahead of the prior year but liberalisation of the market in Argentina affected the profitability of that business.

Mr Hunt said it was a challenging year for the industry, with stiff competition driven by lower crop prices and lower demand for crop protection chemistry.

But Nufarm was still able to grow revenue and maintain margins.

Shares in Nufarm were 13 cents, or 1.45 per cent, lower at $8.85 at 1024 AEST.


* Annual net profit of $114.5m, up from $27.5m

* Revenue up 11.5pct to $3.1b

* Final dividend up one cent to eight cents , unfranked

Bali fights taking extra fuel just in case

Some Virgin Australia flights bound for Bali are stopping in Darwin to take on extra fuel in case Mount Agung erupts and the planes have to turn back.


Experts believe an eruption is imminent and Virgin says it’s had to take precautionary measures.

“Some of our Bali bound flights will be making fuel stops in Darwin. This ensures that if an eruption occurs while the aircraft is en route, we will be able to get guests back to their originating port safely and quickly,” it said in a travel alert.

Jetstar is closely monitoring the situation in Bali and so far flights are operating as scheduled.

Nearly 50,000 Indonesians have fled Bali’s Mount Agung volcano region, with experts saying an eruption is imminent. It last erupted in 1963, killing about 1,100 people.

Despite these fears, Indonesian authorities say tourists continue to flock to Bali.

Arrivals at the international airport in Denpasar remain stable at about 50,000 to 60,000 per day.

“As long as the volcanic ashes don’t have any impact on Bali’s airport, it will not be closed,” an airport spokesman has told the ABC.

Seven regional airports are on stand-by to receive aircraft if diversions are required.

Bali’s primary visitor hubs are in the island’s south, about 70km from Mount Agung.

Meanwhile, Australians have been told to check their travel insurance conditions if they intend to go to Bali.

But it’s too late for anyone who doesn’t already have insurance.

“Now that the status of the Bali volcano is a ‘known event’ … it’s too late to take out travel insurance to cover delays for the volcano,” consumer group Choice warned.

The Australian government’s Smart Traveller website continues to advise travellers to exercise a high degree of caution and monitor news reports.

Indonesian President Joko Widodo is expected to visit the area on Tuesday.

Lions to return to Menin Gates

Every night, at the Menin Gate in the town of Ypres, the Last Post is played and soon it will be under the watchful eyes of a pair of Australian-funded lions.


Two shell-damaged lions from the Gate were given to Australia in 1936 in honour of the 13,000 diggers who died on the Ypres-Salient in Flanders.

Almost every one of those Australians who died in battle would have passed the large stone lions at the Gate, which is now a WWI memorial.

Usually the lions greet visitors to Canberra’s War Memorial but to mark the centenary of WWI, Australia loaned them to Ypres.

“When I was here in April, there was a lot of joking and jesting about how it would be difficult to get the lions back to Australia,” Mr Tehan said on Monday at the gates.

“As the saying goes, there is often a lot of truth in jest.

“The Australian government are going to build replicas of the lions and we want to gift them to the city,” he said.

On the stone gate are 55,000 names of British and Dominion soldiers, including 6000 Australians, with no known grave.

Since 1928, except for a period during WWII, the Last Post has been played at the Menin Gate Memorial at 8pm sharp.

The minister said the gift of the replica lions would strengthen the friendship “that was formed of blood, mud and tears 100 years ago”.

Mr Tehan joined Governor-General Peter Cosgrove and Labor MP Warren Snowdon for the Last Post and laying of wreaths.

Earlier on Monday, Sir Peter laid a wreath at the grave of Patrick Budgen, who was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously for his bravery during the battle of Polygon Wood.

Mr Tehan, Sir Peter and Mr Snowdon are to join Australians at a dawn service on Tuesday to mark the centenary of the battle of Polygon Wood.